Sick Leave and Vacation
Sick leave and vacation can be used for absence from work due to disability. Whether or not you are paid during your time off work, you can preserve your option to return through the Family and Medical Leave Act (MFLA) www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/.
You may also ask that your employer hold open a position for you as a reasonable accommodation under ADA. There is no specific time that is required and you will need to negotiate this with your employer. Your employer has the right to ask for a return to work date (although that can be modified), so communication with your employer is critical.
Short-Term Disability Insurance
In some jobs, there is paid time off at your regular salary or some percentage of your regular salary for a period of time if you are disabled with respect to your work. Most commonly the period when this applies will be in the range of 3 to 6 months. The costs of short term disability are often covered by your employer.